Phototherapy as a Rational Antioxidant Treatment Modality in COVID-19 Management; New Concept and Strategic Approach: Critical Review
Conclusions: This review highlighted that PBMT can deactivate viruses and reduce viral load. This potential therapy could be a way forward via trans-tracheal or trans-dermal PBMT approach in the management COVID-19 patients. Equally, new innovative laser technologies have emerged such as LVAs and USP laser. The latter modality is well documented in the literature for its ability to selectively inactivate viruses by utilising femtosecond laser pulses. On the other hand, LEDs PBM of single or multiple wavelengths, delivered via clustered probe, can enhance immune responses and improve functionality of inflamed lungs.
Nevertheless, utilisation of precise laser dosimetry and necessity to follow laser safety guidelines remains irrefutable. PDT is a well-documented modality in the literature for its effective photochemical reaction on eliminating the viability of SARS and MERS viruses in the blood, which ultimately eliminates the potential risk of CoVs transmission via blood products or its derivatives.
Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation
Conclusion and Future Studies: The clinical applications of PBM have been increasing apace in recent years. The recent adoption of inexpensive large area LED arrays, that have replaced costly, small area laser beams with a risk of eye damage, has accelerated this increase in popularity. Advances in understanding of PBM mechanisms of action at a molecular and cellular level, have provided a scientific rationale for its use for multiple diseases. Many patients have become disillusioned with traditional pharmaceutical approaches to a range of chronic conditions, with their accompanying distressing side-effects and have turned to complementary and alternative medicine for more natural remedies. PBM has an almost complete lack of reported adverse effects, provided the parameters are understood at least at a basic level. The remarkable range of medical benefits provided by PBM, has led some to suggest that it may be “too good to be true”. However one of the most general benefits of PBM that has recently emerged, is its pronounced anti-inflammatory effects.
While the exact cellular signaling pathways responsible for this anti-inflammatory action are not yet completely understood, it is becoming clear that both local and systemic mechanisms are operating. The local reduction of edema, and reductions in markers of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines are well established. However there also appears to be a systemic effect whereby light delivered to the body, can positively benefit distant tissues and organs.
There is a lot of scope for further work on PBM and inflammation. The intriguing benefits of PBM on some autoimmune diseases, suggests that this area may present a fertile area for researchers. There may be some overlap between the ability of PBM to activate and mobilize stem cells and progenitor cells, and its anti-inflammatory action, considering that one of the main benefits of exogenous stem cell therapy has been found to be its anti-inflammatory effect. The versatile benefits of PBM on the brain and the central nervous system, encourages further study of its ability to reduce neuroinflammation. Chronic diseases of the modern age involving systemic inflammation such as type II diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease and endothelial dysfunction are again worth investigating in the context of PBM.